Experiment: Heat Pump Water Heater Performance, Demand Response Capability, and Space Conditioning Impact
As buildings become better insulated and air sealed due to tougher code requirements, building scientists and the codes community itself are turning their attention to other pieces of the residential energy consumption pie. One appliance that contributes 17.7% to the residential energy use pie is water heating (U.S. Energy Information Administration, Residential Energy Consumption Survey). Efficient water heating options are an important way to achieve significant energy savings in the residential sector.
Heat pump water heaters (HPWH) offer an efficient option for the many homes with electric water heaters. They have a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% in comparison to an electric resistance water heater1. Previous research has demonstrated the laboratory performance of HPWHs and has shown that impressive savings are possible, based on standardized testing protocols.
Heat pump water heaters use the refrigerant compression and expansion cycle (much like a refrigerator operating in reverse) to heat water. Heat is extracted from the air and transferred to water in an enclosed tank. A low-pressure liquid refrigerant is vaporized in the heat pump's evaporator and passed into the compressor. As the pressure of the refrigerant increases, so does its temperature. The heated refrigerant runs through a condenser coil within the storage tank, transferring heat to the water stored there. As the refrigerant delivers its heat to the water, it cools and condenses, and then passes through an expansion valve where the pressure is reduced and the cycle starts over.
Significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption nationwide. Experiments in the PNNL Lab Homes are investigating two of these barriers: their impact on space conditioning (indoor heating and cooling) and their use in utility demand response programs (for managing energy loads). Because heat pump water heaters draw heat from the surrounding environment, they usually heat water more efficiently when located inside a home. However, because they exhaust cool air, if they are located in the home (i.e., in conditioned space), they will impact the home’s heating load in winter. Modeling studies performed indicate that the installation location of heat pump water heater can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Ecotope. 2012. Heat Pump Water Heaters: Tier 2 - Ducted Interior Installations. Presented to the Pacific Northwest Regional Technical Forum February 14, 2012, by Adam Hadley and Jeff Harris, Portland, Oregon). Ducting cold air exhaust to discharge outside the home is one solution PNNL is investigating with support from the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance.
For demand-response (DR) programs, many utilities currently employ electric resistance water heaters to reduce peak load by turning off the water heater during times of peak demand and storing energy as hot water in the tank.
|Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort||July 2014||Widder SH, JM Petersen, GB Parker, and MC Baechler. 2014. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort. PNNL-23526, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.
Abstract | Full Publication
Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.
|Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater||July 2013||Widder SH, JM Petersen, GB Parker, and MC Baechler. 2013. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater . PNNL-22642, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.
Abstract | Full Publication
This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.
|Evaluation of Ducted GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater in the PNNL Lab Homes||April 2013||Widder SH. 2013. "Evaluation of Ducted GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater in the PNNL Lab Homes." Presented by Sarah Widder at DOE Building America Program Review, Richland, WA on April 24, 2013. PNNL-SA-95180.
Abstract | Full Publication
Presentation for Building America Program Review describing project scope, schedule, and budget.
1 Based on the DOE test procedure (10 CFR 430.32(d)) and comparison of an ERWH (Energy Factor, EF = 0.90) versus a HPWH (EF = 2.4)